Training Objectives and Standards
The course will train students who will be able to meet the needs of industrial construction in a social market economy and cultivate their all-round development, including their morality, intelligence and physique. Students will be trained thoroughly in administrative management and come away familiar with the regulations and rules of administrative management and all relevant management know-how. Students will be trained as specialists who are able to work in the basic levels of administrative management.
The training includes the fundamental theories and knowledge of administrative management and focuses on key skills; students will come away with the capability to analyze and solve problems by using the theories of administrative management.
The core subjects for the course are: Fundamentals Of Management, Public Administration, Political Science, Methods of Social Research, Practical Writing, Office Management, Supervision Studies, Administrative Organization Studies and so on.
Duration of Study and Graduation
The course uses a credit-based system. Credits received within 8 years of registration are valid.
The Open University of China (OUC) has designed this as a three-year part-time study course.
The minimum number of credits required for graduation is 76. Graduates obtaining the required number of credits are awarded a nationally recognised associate degree certificate of higher education.
Curriculum and Teaching Management
- The course includes compulsory subjects, optional modules, and practicals. The compulsory subjects offered by the OUC employ uniform syllabus, teaching materials, examinations and standards of marking.
- Regarding the optional modules, it is up to the local universities to make their selections when they draw up their teaching plans. It is up to the local universities to offer independent optional modules in line with training targets and local needs, and they are in charge of teaching materials, management and examinations.
- Regarding the subjects offered, the OUC will provide support in terms of syllabus, multi-media teaching materials and examinations.
- Each subject will have a formative assessment organised in accordance with the OUC requirements. The results of the formative assessment will be converted into the final score of the subject according to certain proportion specified in the requirement of each subject. Those who are without the result of formative assessment should not participate in the final exam of the subject.
- Local universities are responsible for implementing practical study according to the syllabus requirements. The work experience can be gained from internship in the administrative sectors of the governments, field investigation and graduation assignments. The practical study cannot be omitted.
Teaching Mode and Media
- Teaching Mode
1. Design Principle: to adapt to the requirements of reformed educational methods and open education development; to make full use technology and various functions of modern distance education; to effect the transition from closed to open education and the transition from teacher-centered to student-centered learning.
2. With the guidance of the teachers, the students of this major complete their study and meet the training objectives and requirements through the main media of printed materials, audio-visual materials, IP courseware and CAI courseware, with printed materials being the primary medium. Face-to-face tutorials, correspondence tutorial, online teaching, BBS, e-mail, VBI, telephone and two-way video conferencing, and televised teaching are also used to support students.
- Teaching Media
1. Printed materials constitute the core of the instructional media for each course. They are the primary means of transferring information and developing the students' self-study skills, and thus are the most important type of instructional media.
2. Printed materials should cover the entire course curriculum and include all of the basic information the students need to study on their own. The materials should make the learning requirements of the course clear and systematically explain course content. Furthermore, they should help the student learn how to study, introduce new content, and furnish reference material such as laws, regulations, and case studies.
3. Printed materials may be "whole" or "discrete". "Whole" materials organically combine course material with self-study aids and reference material, and are then divided into modules. "Discrete" materials join primary and auxiliary instructional material together in a complementary fashion.
- Audiovisual Materials (including VCD)
1. Audiovisual materials (including VCD, hereinafter) are a needed supplement to printed materials as they can further clarify printed content. They help students to better grasp and understand course material.
2. Audiovisual materials should be closely linked to printed materials, but should not simply repeat the material. They should be primarily used to clarify areas which the students find difficult to comprehend, requiring additional induction, generalization, prompting, or explanation from the instructor.
3. Audiovisual materials generally teach or tutor key points. For the more practical courses, every effort is made to increase content such as case study discussions, thematic debates, or mock trials, raising the student's perceptual awareness.
4. The form of audiovisual material used should be appropriate to the characteristics of the course content. The contents which can be made more clearly in form of picture should be illustrated in videos; those which can be comprehended with the aid of tape recordings should be illustrated with recording.
- IP Courseware
1.IP Courseware is integrated internet courseware with videos, audios and texts suitable for self- study. It also has a CD version.
2. The contents of IP courseware are closely related to the contents of textbooks and give further explanation and supplements for textual materials. Its advantage is that it can be updated at any time.
3. Employees of administration departments who possess a university diploma or higher in administrative management, or a senior professional title, and are evaluated as experts with a strong academic level, may serve as main lecturer for some subjects with strong professional and practical orientation or as chief editors of textbooks.
- CAI Software (including online edition)
1. CAI (Computer-Assisted Instruction) software serves to break down and refine printed materials, helping the students to learn and practice on their own and test themselves.
2. CAI content is closely matched to the content of the printed materials. By breaking down and analyzing course content from various angles, the software provides students with a personalized, interactive learning environment on the computer or online that enables self-practice and self-testing.
3. CAI software is available in CD-ROM form and online; students are free to pick the format that suits their circumstances.
Other Study Support Services
- In-Person Tutoring
1.In principle, face-to-face tutoring is organized and implemented by each pilot unit, with the OUC providing corresponding guidance. When necessary, the OUC will organize tour guidance on the compulsory subjects irregularly.
2. Each subject in the programme should have arrangements for in-person tutoring. The instructor can resolve difficulties and questions encountered during the student' s self-study, or arrange case study discussions or seminars. Through application of the case study teaching method and face-to-face instruction and interaction between teacher and student, the student broadens his or her thinking, acquires knowledge, and receives comprehensive training. In-person tutoring needs not be lengthy; each semester course can be completed in approximately 7 class hours.
3. As to the time and manner, it will depend on the reality and decision of each pilot unit.
- Correspondence Tutoring
1. Correspondence tutoring is organized and implemented jointly by OUC and the pilot unit.
2. Correspondence tutoring formats include periodicals and letters.
3. Correspondence tutoring content should include: Guidance in study methods, key points of the course, difficult points, explanation of unclear points, practice, self-test, trends in the development of the department, end-of-semester review guidance, Q&A, etc. End-of-semester review guidance for compulsory subjects and optional modules is uniformly prepared and issued by OUC.
1. VBI technology can connect radio, TV with computer. Therefore, local open universities (station) without access to internet can use CETV-1 TV channel to receive and download general radio information as well as a great deal of continuously updated education and teaching information of OUC.
2. VBI materials are produced by OCU. Local open universities should make sure the proper usage of the resources.
3. The main contents of VBI include teaching information, course coaching, self-examination and final review. Each course in every term will have at least 2 to 3 coaching articles.
- Phone and Two-Way Video System
1. OUC and the pilot unit should establish a study hotline number and a fixed time for Q&A and teaching feedback.
2. OUC and the pilot unit then gradually progress to a two-way video system to conduct teacher training and discussion of difficult questions and case studies.
- Televised Teaching
1. The OUC schedules televised teaching for more than two times every semester. The pilot unit should arrange to view the program at the appropriate time.
2. The OUC is responsible for producing the live televised teaching programme. Main contents are educational information, resolving difficult questions, and special lectures on the latest trends in administrative management. The local open universities, if having capacity, shall try to produce their own live televised teaching programmes.
3. Televised teaching will be merged with the two-way video system for real-time teaching.
- Online Learning (including online discussions, email, etc)
1. In coordination with OUC's revolutionary open education system, we have drafted a distributed online virtual campus using existing hardware and OUC's online learning platform. The campus is centered around OUC and supported by pilot units. Tying together each school's network and multimedia classroom, employing network information technologies such as instructional web pages, online discussion boards, and email accounts, the campus breaks through the limitations of traditional one-directional teaching methods. Students and teachers alike benefit from this online self-learning and personalized education environment. The campus is a student-centric online learning system that provides an abundance of educational resources and a comprehensive array of online learning support services, and allows for mutual feedback between teacher and student.
2. This system consists of online teaching system, online learning system and online tutoring system. This system will be implemented through OUC's system platform shortly. Details are as follows:
1) Students can log in to study online.
2) Provide teaching plans, course description and information such as teacher directories. Allow for search and input. Facilitate the timely release of information related to teaching and developments in the department.
3) Course Teaching: Include major and course offerings, arrangements, study goals, requirements, guidance on study methods, and tutoring on course content.
4) Courseware: Fully utilize existing resources and adapt existing audiovisual material to gradually develop online CAI courseware. Provide necessary supplements to printed course material, demonstrate a mock court, aid in self-testing, strengthen the student's sense of self-study. The student can study in a selective and focused manner based on his or her study needs.
5) Online Discussion Boards: Primarily provide for real-time and non-real-time discussion, increasing interaction in the learning process. Students and instructors can raise or answer questions in their discussion groups. They may arrange two or three online seminars during the semester for such questions.
6) Email accounts: Establish a dedicated teaching email account for the collection and timely answering of questions. Homework may also be assigned, checked, and changed.
7) Practice question database: Provide an appropriate number of practice questions or test questions, allowing for self-study and self-testing. The instructor can record, produce, and change questions.
8) Online testing: providing online testing system, establishing test question base for students to have exams anytime anywhere.
9) Instructional material: An online library is established to provide related webpage linkages for both teachers and students and the information of teaching resources for students.
10) Students can make their own studying plan, choose studying methods, determine studying contents, exercise and finish their homework according to their individual need through the online teaching platform. Students can raise questions through real-time or non-real-time online discussion section and sending email to teachers or fellow students, and can also participate in the online discussion meeting. From review and self-test, they can conduct self-evaluation, and adjust their studying plan anytime they want.
11) As to the teachers, they can organize teaching online, provide support services for students, give real-time or non-real-time tutoring and answer questions through online discussion system or emails, make suggestions to the students' questions and conduct online training of teachers.
12) This system will closely follow the pace of the teaching, make timely updates to course content, and provide instructional resources. The student can adjust the pace of study to his or her liking and ask questions at any time in an interactive environment. The content will be dynamic, simple, and practical. The system aims to focus on training, collaborative learning, improving the student's self-discipline and self-study abilities, increasing educational resources, and expanding the student's horizons.
Teaching Quality Assurance System
The pilot units are responsible for employing and improving the teaching staff within their regions. Each subject has full-time course leaders and full-time or part-time lead teachers that meet the following qualifications:
All course leaders have an undergraduate degree or above in administrative management; are active in the teaching and teaching management of legal science; are able to teach online; and are fully conversant with the characteristics of teaching in open universities.
Lead Teachers (chief editors of teaching materials)
Lead teachers have an undergraduate degree or above in administrative management as well as senior professional titles; are active in the teaching and academic research of legal science; have rich teaching experience and strong oral and written communication skills. In addition, they all speak fluent Mandarin (putonghua) with clear pronunciation.
Full-time tutors have at least an undergraduate degree, while part-time tutors not only have at least an undergraduate degree, but also have professional titles in legal science at or above mid-range level and a certain level of academic theoretical level. In addition, they are engaged in teaching, research or practice in open universities or conventional institutions of higher education, professional research institutes, or the related disciplines of administrative units.
The teaching media for compulsory subjects and limited optional modules falls under the jurisdiction of the OUC, while for the pilot optional modules, it falls to the provincial open universities.
Those involved in compiling the teaching media are all appropriately qualified.
- The syllabus, teaching proposals and samples of teaching materials for independently established optional modules are all submitted to the OUC for evaluation and approval before teaching commences. Outstanding ones are recommended for use in the OU system.
- The teaching contents and requirements of the subjects of this course are required to reach junior college level of higher education.
All teaching staff and tutors of the pilot units receive thorough training.
The OUC is responsible for giving training to teachers of the compulsory subjects, while the pilot units are responsible for training those in their regions.
Training is determined by the actual situation and can involve meetings, classes, online initiatives, two-way video conferencing, or training materials. Instructor training includes teaching requirements, explaining the main points and difficulties of the course, usage of various media equipment, and how to motivate students to learn on their own.
At the beginning of the course, students sit an entrance test on Chinese language, advertising, art and design. Pilot units give students guidance on the course contents, subjects offered, study plan and study methods. Each subject has an induction including overall design, teaching requirements, study methods and materials.
Centralised tutorials are given on problematic areas in compulsory subjects through live classes, two-way video conferencing, online teaching resources and correspondence.
Each subject has approximately two tutorials per term.
Centres for Experimental Teaching
The OUC selects pilot areas to carry out experimental teaching and learning activities, test the practical effect of various teaching media, explore the reform in teaching and learning models, and improve learner support.
The establishment of these centres is decided by the OUC after inspection visits.
Formative Assessment (regular assignments)
At least two formative assessments are given in each subject.
The OUC has a uniform process for the formative assessment of compulsory subjects and limited optional modules, which is conducted mainly through correspondence channels. The pilot units are responsible for their own formative assessments and having them checked and marked.
The format of formative assessments is governed by the subject contents and has a practical focus. They take the form of short essay, thematic discussion, comprehensive tests, and mid-term examinations.
The formative assessment will be arranged by the OUC. Scores will be calculated as a percentage. Essays and seminar discussions will be evaluated as excellent, fine, medium, pass and fail in five levels with respective scores of 90, 80, 70, 60 and 40. Teachers can add ten marks to students whose study attitude is evaluated as excellent, or reduce ten marks to students who fail in this regard. The comprehensive tests will be marked according to the scores of the examination papers. Students who fail to complete the assignments will receive zero marks. Marks for the formative assessment will be included in the final result of the subjects according to the percentage stated in the introduction of each subject.
- Subject Assessment
Each subject is marked on the formative assessment and exam on completion of that subject. Students with no formative assessment mark cannot take the exam.
Generally, the graduation test for each compulsory subject will take the form of close-book exams. The OUC is in charge of the compilation of exam papers for all the compulsory subjects. For those subjects with fairly fixed contents, a test item database or test paper bank will gradually be compiled.
The exams of the subject will be marked out of 100 scores. The exam score of each subject is converted to the final performance according to the specific requirement. A minimum of 60 marks (from the formative assessment and exam) is needed to pass the subject and receive the corresponding credits.
The types of exam questions for closed-book examinations are decided according to the nature of the subject and usually contain four types from the following: filling in blanks, multiple-choice, judgment, explanation of terms, question and answer, essay, and case study.
Those who set questions in the test papers shall have high professional level and rich teaching experience in the subjects and have professional titles of administrative management at or above mid-range level.
- Teaching and Exam Inspection
The OUC is responsible for inspecting the teaching and exams of each pilot unit, checking formative assessments and practical teaching arrangements, as well as feedback on teaching information.
This kind of inspection should be organized for 1 or 2 times every semester.
- The final practical is obligatory for all students in the programme.
- The OUC is responsible for formulating the uniform basic requirements for the final practical, while the local open universities are responsible for implementing them based on the requirements of the syllabus.
- The format of practicals can be decided on according to the actual situation on the ground. It can be done in the form of internship, social investigation, thematic debate and others.
- Those successfully completing the final practical get the corresponding credits. T hose without it are not permitted to graduate.
- The final practical is generally scheduled for after students obtain most of the obligatory subject credits.
- All diploma programme participants must write a graduation thesis.
- The basic requirements (covered separately) are formulated uniformly by the OUC and carried out by each pilot unit, with the OUC making inspections and giving instruction.
- Those completing their thesis get the corresponding credits, without which graduation is not permitted.
- The thesis is written after students obtain all the compulsory subject credits and complete the practicals.