Training Objectives, Requirements and Target Students
The aim of the course is to foster students' all-round development in ethics, intellect, physique and aesthetics and equip graduates with knowledge and competency in administrative management, qualifying them for positions in Party and government offices, institutions, social organisations and other managerial posts in the area of public administration and management.
The requirements for the course are: to grasp the basic theories and knowledge of the science of administration, the science of management, political science, law and economics; to be trained in administration norms, administration management procedures, administrative management skills, law-based administration; to be capable of political discrimination, enforcing public policies, organising, innovation and human resources development and management.
Students who have already completed a university diploma within the national educational system and are working in managerial posts in government, parties, companies and organisations or those who aim to work in administration and management in the future may enroll.
The Contemporary Political System in China, The Science of Administrative Leadership, Introduction to Public Policy, The Science of Government Economy, Administrative Law and Administrative Procedural Law, Human Resources Management in the Public Sector, The Science of Urban Management and Western Administration Studies.
Each subject will have a formative assessment organised in accordance with OUC requirements. The results of the formative assessment will be converted into the final score of the subject according to a certain proportion specified in the requirements of each subject. Those who have not completed the formative assessment should not participate in the final exam of the subject.
Duration of Study and Graduation
The course uses a credit-based system. Credits received within 8 years of registration are valid.
The Open University of China (OUC) has designed this as a three-year part-time study course.
The minimum number of credits required for graduation is 71. Graduates obtaining the required number of credits are awarded a nationally recognised bachelor's degree of higher education.
Curriculum and Teaching Management
- The course includes compulsory subjects, optional modules, and practicals. The compulsory subjects offered by the OUC employ uniform syllabus, teaching materials, examinations and standards of marking. Teaching process management is strengthened via centralised tutorial, inspection on teaching and examinations and the like.
- Regarding the optional modules, it is up to the local universities to make their selections when they draw up their teaching plans. Optional modules taking during the diploma period do not need to be repeated during the degree period. It is up to the local universities to offer independent optional modules in line with training targets and local needs, and they are in charge of teaching materials, management and examinations.
- Regarding the subjects offered, the OUC will provide support in terms of syllabus, multi-media teaching materials and examinations.
- Students whose main subject is not administrative management at diploma level have to do a conversion by studying The Principles of Politics and Public Administration.
- Each subject will have a formative assessment organised in accordance with the OUC requirements. The results of the formative assessment will be converted into the final score of the subject according to certain proportion specified in the requirement of each subject. Those who are without the result of formative assessment should not participate in the final exam of the subject.
- The assessment of each subject of administrative management shall be based on syllabus and printed materials. The exam papers are marked out of 100. The exam scores are converted to the total performance of the subject according to the specific requirement.
- Local universities are responsible for implementing practical study, mainly including work experience and graduation thesis, according to the syllabus requirements. The work experience can be gained from internship in the administrative sectors of the governments, field investigation, case study and others. The aim of the thesis is to cultivate the student’s ability to resolve practical problems. The topic can be diverse, but should conform to the requirements of the course.
Design Principle: to adapt to the requirements of reformed educational methods and open education development; to make full use technology and various functions of modern distance education; to effect the transition from closed to open education and the transition from teacher-centered to student-centered learning.
With the guidance of the teachers, the students of this major complete their study and meet the training objectives and requirements through the main media of printed materials, audio-visual materials, IP courseware and CAI courseware, with printed materials being the primary medium. Face-to-face tutorials, correspondence tutorial, online teaching, BBS, e-mail, VBI, telephone and two-way video conferencing, and televised teaching are also used to support students.
Type, Function, and Content of Instructional Media
- Printed materials constitute the core of the instructional media for each course. They are the primary means of transferring information and developing the students' self-study skills, and thus are the most important type of instructional media.
- Printed materials should cover the entire course curriculum and include all of the basic information the students need to study on their own. The materials should make the learning requirements of the course clear and systematically explain course content. Furthermore, they should help the student learn how to study, introduce new content, and furnish reference material such as laws, regulations, and case studies.
- Printed materials may be "whole" or "discrete". "Whole" materials organically combine course material with self-study aids and reference material, and are then divided into modules. "Discrete" materials join primary and auxiliary instructional material together in a complementary fashion.
Audiovisual Materials (including VCD):
Audiovisual materials (including VCD, hereinafter) are a needed supplement to printed materials as they can further clarify printed content. They help students to better grasp and understand course material.
Audiovisual materials should be closely linked to printed materials, but should not simply repeat the material. They should be primarily used to clarify areas which the students find difficult to comprehend, requiring additional induction, generalization, prompting, or explanation from the instructor.
- Audiovisual materials generally teach or tutor key points. For the more practical courses, every effort is made to increase content such as case study discussions, thematic debates, or mock trials, raising the student's perceptual awareness.
- The form of audiovisual material used should be appropriate to the characteristics of the course content. The contents which can be made more clearly in form of picture should be illustrated in videos; those which can be comprehended with the aid of tape recordings should be illustrated with recording.
CAI Software (including online edition):
CAI (Computer-Assisted Instruction) software serves to break down and refine printed materials, helping the students to learn and practice on their own and test themselves.
CAI content is closely matched to the content of the printed materials. By breaking down and analyzing course content from various angles, the software provides students with a personalized, interactive learning environment on the computer or online that enables self-practice and self-testing.
CAI software is available in CD-ROM form and online; students are free to pick the format that suits their circumstances.
Other Study Support Services
- In principle, in-person tutoring is organized and implemented by each pilot unit, with OUC providing corresponding guidance. When necessary, the OUC will organize tour guidance on the compulsory subjects irregularly.
- Each subject in the programme should have arrangements for in-person tutoring. The instructor can resolve difficulties and questions encountered during the student's self-study, or arrange case study discussions or seminars. Through application of the case study teaching method and face-to-face instruction and interaction between teacher and student, the student broadens his or her thinking, acquires knowledge, and receives comprehensive training. In-person tutoring need not be lengthy; each semester course can be completed in approximately 20 class hours.
- The tutors conducting in-person tutoring should be equipped with the corresponding qualification and ability.
- As to the time and manner, it will depend on the reality and decision of each pilot unit.
- Correspondence tutoring is organized and implemented jointly by OUC and the pilot unit.
- Correspondence tutoring formats include periodicals and letters.
- Correspondence tutoring content should include: Guidance in study methods, key points of the course, difficult points, explanation of unclear points, practice, self-test, trends in the development of the department, end-of-semester review guidance, Q&A, etc. End-of-semester review guidance for compulsory subjects and optional modules is uniformly prepared and issued by OUC.
- VBI technology can connect radios and TV with computers. Therefore, local open universities (working stations) without access to the Internet can use CETV-1 TV channel to receive and download general radio information as well as a great deal of continuously updated education and teaching information from the OUC.
- VBI materials are produced by the OUC. Local open universities should ensure proper usage of the resources.
- The main contents of VBI include teaching information, subject coaching, self-examination and final review. Each subject in every term will have at least two to three coaching articles.
Phone and Two-Way Video System:
- OUC and the pilot unit should establish a study hotline number and a fixed time for Q&A and teaching feedback.
- OUC and the pilot unit then gradually progress to a two-way video system to conduct teacher training and discussion of difficult questions and case studies.
- As to the compulsory subjects, the OUC schedules televised teaching every semester. The pilot unit should arrange to view the program at the appropriate time.
- OUC is responsible for producing the televised teaching program. Main contents are educational information, resolving difficult questions, and special lectures on the latest trends in law.
- Televised teaching will be merged with the two-way video system for real-time teaching.
Online Learning (including online discussions, email, etc):
In coordination with OUC's revolutionary open education system, we have drafted a distributed online virtual campus using existing hardware and OUC's online learning platform. The campus is centered around OUC and supported by pilot units. Tying together each school’s network and multimedia classroom, employing network information technologies such as instructional web pages, online discussion boards, and email accounts, the campus breaks through the limitations of traditional one-directional teaching methods. Students and teachers alike benefit from this online self-learning and personalized education environment. The campus is a student-centric online learning system that provides an abundance of educational resources and a comprehensive array of online learning support services, and allows for mutual feedback between teacher and student.
This system consists of online teaching system, online learning system and online tutoring system. This system will be implemented through OUC’s system platform shortly. Details are as follows:
- Students Administration: Includes register and profile. Students can log in to study online and their basic situation, study performance could be recorded and retrieved.
- Course Administration: Provide teaching plans, outlines, and information such as teacher directories. Allow for search and input. Facilitate the timely release of information related to teaching and developments in the department.
- Course Teaching: Include major and course offerings, arrangements, study goals, requirements, guidance on study methods, and tutoring on course content.
- Courseware: Fully utilize existing resources and adapt existing audiovisual material to gradually develop online CAI courseware. Provide necessary supplements to printed course material, demonstrate a mock court, aid in self-testing, strengthen the student’s sense of self-study. The student can study in a selective and focused manner based on his or her study needs.
- Online Discussion Boards: Primarily provide for real-time and non-real-time discussion, increasing interaction in the learning process. Students and instructors can raise or answer questions in their discussion groups. They may arrange two or three online seminars during the semester for such questions.
- Email accounts: Establish a dedicated teaching email account for the collection and timely answering of questions. Homework may also be assigned, checked, and changed.
- Online paging: Students can use this service to call for help from teachers and classmates.
- Practice question database: Provide an appropriate number of practice questions or test questions, allowing for self-study and self-testing. The instructor can record, produce, and change questions.
- Instructional material: An online library exists to provide related webpage links for both teachers and students and information on teaching resources for students.
- Students can make their own study plan, choose study methods, determine study contents and exercise and finish their homework according to their individual needs through the online teaching platform. Students can also raise questions through the online discussion section and sending email to teachers or fellow students, and participate in online discussion meetings. From review and self-test, they can conduct self-evaluation, and adjust their study plan anytime they want.
- As for the teachers, they can organize teaching online, provide support services for students, give real-time or non-real time tutoring and answer questions through online discussion system or emails – they can also make suggestions to the students' questions and conduct online training of teachers. Teachers can also participate in the production of online courses.
This system will closely follow the pace of the teaching, make timely updates to course content, and provide instructional resources. The student can adjust the pace of study to his or her liking and ask questions at any time in an interactive environment. The content will be dynamic, simple, and practical. The system aims to focus on training, collaborative learning, improving the student’s self-discipline and self-study abilities, increasing educational resources, and expanding the student’s horizons.
Teaching Quality Guarantee Insurance System
The pilot units are responsible for employing and improving the teaching staff within their regions. Each subject has full-time course leaders and full-time or part-time lead teachers that meet the following qualifications:
All course leaders have an undergraduate degree or above in administrative management; are active in the teaching and teaching management of legal science; are able to teach online; and are fully conversant with the characteristics of teaching in open universities.
Lead Teachers (chief editors of teaching materials):
Lead teachers have an undergraduate degree or above in administrative management as well as senior professional titles; are active in the teaching and academic research of legal science; have rich teaching experience and strong oral and written communication skills. In addition, they all speak fluent Mandarin (putonghua) with clear pronunciation.
Full-time tutors have at least an undergraduate degree, while part-time tutors not only have at least an undergraduate degree, but also have professional titles in legal science at or above mid-range level and a certain level of academic theoretical level. In addition, they are engaged in teaching, research or practice in open universities or conventional institutions of higher education, professional research institutes, or the related disciplines of judicial or administrative law-enforcement units.
- All teaching staff and tutors of the pilot units receive thorough training.
- The OUC is responsible for giving training to teachers of the compulsory subjects, while the pilot units are responsible for training those in their regions.
- Training is determined by the actual situation and can involve meetings, classes, online initiatives, two-way video conferencing, or training materials.
- The teacher training includes teaching requirements, explanation of focal and difficult points of subjects, introduction to the use of multi-media for teaching and ways for students' autonomous study.
- Pilot units give students guidance on the course contents, subjects offered, study plan and study methods.
- Each subject has an induction including overall design, teaching requirements, study methods and materials.
- Centralised tutorials are given on problematic areas in compulsory subjects through live classes, two-way video conferencing, online teaching resources and correspondence.
- Each subject has approximately one or two tutorials per term.
Centres for Experimental Teaching
- The OUC shall choose representative pilot areas to carry out experimental teaching and learning activities, to test the practical effect of various teaching media, to explore the reform in teaching and learning mode, and to improve learner support.
- The establishment of centers for experimental teaching is to be decided by the OUC after inspecting the experimental units based on their applications.
- At least two formative assessments are given in each subject.
- The OUC has a uniform process for the formative assessment of compulsory subjects and limited optional modules, which is conducted mainly through correspondence channels. The pilot units are responsible for their own formative assessments and having them checked and marked.
- The format of formative assessments is governed by the subject contents and has a practical focus. They take the form of short essay, thematic discussion, comprehensive tests, and mid-term examinations.
- The result of the formative assessment will be converted into the final performance according to the proportion specified in the requirement of the subject.
- Each subject is marked on the formative assessment and exam on completion of that subject. Students with no formative assessment mark cannot take the exam.
- Generally, the OUC is in charge of the compilation of exam papers for all the compulsory subjects, with exams being either open or closed-book. For those subjects with fairly fixed contents, a test item database or test paper bank will gradually be compiled.
- The exams of the course will be marked out of 100 scores. The exam score of each subject is converted to the final performance according to the specific requirement. A minimum of 60 marks (from the formative assessment and exam) is needed to pass the subject and receive the corresponding credits.
- The types of exam questions for closed-book examinations are decided according to the nature of the subject and usually contain four types from the following: filling in blanks, multiple-choice, judgment, explanation of terms, question and answer, essay, and case study.
- Those who set questions in the test papers shall have high professional level and rich teaching experience in the subjects and have professional titles of administrative management at or above mid-range level.
- The duration of the final exam for each subject is 90 minutes.
Teaching and Exam Inspection
- The OUC is responsible for inspecting the teaching and exams of each pilot unit, checking formative assessments and practical teaching arrangements, as well as feedback on teaching information.
- This kind of inspection should be organized for 1 or 2 times every semester.
- The final practical is obligatory for all students in the programme.
- The OUC is responsible for formulating the uniform basic requirements for the final practical, while the local open universities are responsible for implementing them based on the requirements of the syllabus.
- The format of practicals can be decided on according to the actual situation on the ground. It can be done in the form of internship, social investigation, thematic debate and others.
- Those successfully completing the final practical get the corresponding credits. Those without it are not permitted to graduate.
- The final practical is generally scheduled for after students obtain most of the obligatory subject credits.
- All degree programme participants must write a graduation thesis.
- The basic requirements (covered separately) are formulated uniformly by the OUC and carried out by each pilot unit, with the OUC making inspections and giving instruction.
- Those completing their thesis get the corresponding credits, without which graduation is not permitted.
- The thesis is written after students obtain all the compulsory subject credits and complete the practicals.
- The entrance exam will be a comprehensive examination paper, which in principle will cover politics, management, administration, law and economics. Each of the five areas will have 20% of the total score. The exact contents and examination methods will be organized and arranged by local open universities.
- Students graduating from non-administrative management courses at or above diploma level wishing to take the administrative management degree course must do a conversion for the compulsory subjects. They are the Principles of Politics, the Science of Public Administration and Theory and Methods of Social Investigation and Research.
- All pilot units also offer the conversion subjects as per OUC regulations.
- The time, form and examination of the conversion for compulsory modules during the diploma period will be decided by each trial unit according to the circumstances of the university and the situation of the students. The OUC will perform a regular inspection.
- Students are allowed to take the credits of conversion modules as the credits of optional subjects. However, the number of conversion modules should not be reduced.
- As for the optional modules, it is up to the local universities or students to make their own choices. Optional modules taken during the diploma period should not be repeated during the degree period. It is up to the local universities to offer independent optional modules in line with training targets and local needs.